Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

PID is characterized by infection of the female reproductive organs, such as the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It is mostly acquired through unsafe sexual practices and is one of the most serious consequences of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). PID can cause permanent damage to the female reproductive system and is one of the leading causes of infertility.

Causes and risks

PID can occur when your cervix is exposed to an STD, such as chlamydia or gonorrhea. The cervix loses its ability to protect the internal organs from bacteria and the infection eventually spreads to your uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Ninety percent of PID occurs as a result of untreated chlamydia and gonorrhea. Sexual practices that involve multiple partners and unprotected sex increase your chances of acquiring STDs, which can in turn lead to PID. Some of the other causes include:

  • Intrauterine device (IUD) use
  • Birthing
  • Miscarriage
  • Abortion
  • Endometrial biopsy (procedure to remove a piece of tissue from your uterine lining for examination)
  • Regular douching
  • Previous history of PID or STD


PID can show minor symptoms or no symptoms at all (common with chlamydial infection). They can often vary, but may include:

  • Dull pain in your stomach and lower abdomen and pelvis
  • Green or yellow vaginal discharge, having a distinct and often unpleasant odor
  • Pain during urination
  • Irregular menses
  • Fever or chills
  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  • Pain in the lower back
  • Painful intercourse

If you notice these symptoms, it is important to stop having intercourse and visit your doctor immediately, as prompt treatment is vital for PID.


If left untreated, PID can cause scarring and collection of abscesses (infected fluid) in the fallopian tubes. PID can also lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy (implantation of embryo outside the uterus). Scarring or damage can occur to other reproductive organs, which can cause chronic pelvic pain that can last for many months.


Based on your signs and symptoms, your doctor may perform a pelvic examination, obtain a sample of your vaginal discharge, and perform cervical cultures and urine tests. Samples may be obtained from your cervix and vagina using a cotton swab and sent to the laboratory to identify the bacteria causing the infection.

Your doctor may also recommend the following tests to confirm and determine the extent of your infection.

  • Blood tests, to z the infection
  • Pelvic ultrasound, where sound waves are used to relay images of your reproductive organs
  • Endometrial biopsy
  • Laparoscopy, where a thin, lighted tube with a camera is inserted through a small cut in your abdomen to examine your pelvic organs


Confirmation of PID will be immediately followed by treatment. You will be started on oral antibiotic medications for mild cases of PID. For more severe cases, you may be treated with a combination of oral and intravenous medications or hospitalized for more aggressive management. It is important that your partner also gets treated, even if he does not have any symptoms, in order to prevent future recurrence of the infection.

If antibiotics fail to clear the infection, and if the infection forms abscesses in your uterus or ovaries, you may be recommended to undergo a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) or an oophorectomy (removal of ovaries).

When your infection, abscess, or inflammation has cleared, but you are still experiencing chronic pelvic pain, you may be recommended to undergo a nerve ablation surgery, where the nerves that provide sensation to your pelvic organs are surgically removed or destroyed.


Prevention is the best way to deal with PID. The preventive measures include:

  • Avoid unsafe sexual practices, multiple partners.
  • Watch for symptoms and be prompt to get treatment.
  • Have regular follow up with your doctor, as infections identified during the early stages can be prevented from spreading to your reproductive organs.
  • Avoid douching, as douching disturbs the fragile balance of bacteria in your vagina, masks your vaginal discharge, and pushes the bacteria up into the genital tract.
  • ACOG
  • AIUM
  • American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists
  • NYU langone Medical center
  • American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities
  • UpToDate